The Department of Education (DE) has bid for an extra £427m in funding in the 2020/21 budget.
Pressures have increased across a number of areas, a DE official told MLAs.
By 2022, an extra £716m will be needed compared to this year, according to the DE’s director of finance Gary Fair.
The education budget – which covers schools and youth services – is one of Stormont’s biggest at about £2bn a year.
Mr Fair detailed the need for extra money while giving evidence to Stormont’s education committee.
He said the increase was needed to pay for things like a teachers’ pay settlement, increasing special educational needs (SEN) support costs and essential maintenance work in schools.