The National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) Northern Ireland represents principals and vice-principals in around two-thirds of 1,150 schools in the Province.
Members are now being asked if they would back either strike action or action short of a strike.
The vote, which opened today, will close on September 30.
The union had previously indicated it would go ahead with the ballot unless concerns about increased workload, school support and the inspection process were addressed.
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